Ameisenparasiten: 1.415 parasitische Organismen bekannt.

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Ameisenparasiten: 1.415 parasitische Organismen bekannt.

Beitragvon Merkur » Mittwoch 12. September 2018, 11:21

Die meisten davon sind Dipteren: 34,8 %, Pilze: 25,6 %, und Hymenopteren: 25,1 %.
Es gibt Berichte über Parasiten aus nur 9 der 17 Ameisen-Unterfamilien, und aus nur 82 der im Moment gültigen 334 Gattungen.

Es ist anzunehmen, dass bei den Ameisen noch zahllose parasitische Organismen zu entdecken sind!

Pathogens, parasites, and parasitoids of ants: a synthesis of parasite biodiversity and epidemiological traits. (2018)
Lauren E. Quevillon and David P. Hughes. ... cal_traits

Ants are among the most ecologically successful organisms on Earth, with a global distribution and diverse nesting and foraging
ecologies. Ants are also social organisms, living in crowded, dense colonies that can range up to millions of individuals.
Understanding the ecological success of the ants requires understanding how they have mitigated one of the major costs of social
living - infection by parasitic organisms. Additionally, the ecological diversity of ants suggests that they may themselves harbor
a diverse, and largely unknown, assemblage of parasites. As a first step, we need to know the taxonomic and functional diversity
of the parasitic organisms infecting ants. To that end, we provide a comprehensive review of the parasitic organisms infecting ants
by collecting all extant records. We synthesize major patterns in parasite ecology by categorizing how parasites encounter their ant
hosts, whether they require host death as a developmental necessity, and how they transmit to future hosts.
We report 1,415 records of parasitic organisms infecting ants, the majority of which come from order Diptera (34.8%), phylum
Fungi (25.6%), and order Hymenoptera (25.1%). Most parasitic organisms infecting ants are parasitoids (89.6%), requiring the death
of their host as developmental necessity and most initially encounter their hosts in the extranidal environment (68.6%). Importantly,
though most parasitic organisms infecting ants only need a single host to complete their life cycle (89.2%), the vast majority need
to leave the nest before transmission to the next ant host can occur (88.3%), precluding ant-to-ant transmission within the nest.
With respect to the host, we only found records for 9 out of 17 extant ant sub-families, and for 82 out of the currently recognized
334 ant genera. Though there is likely bias in the records reported, both host and parasite ecological traits and evolutionary histories
underlie the pattern of ant-parasite association reported here. This work provides a foundation for future work that will begin to
untangle the ecological drivers of ant-parasite relationships and the evolutionary implications thereof.

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